Lithium-ion battery cycle life is closely related to seven factors

According to Battery.com.cn, there is no need to talk about the importance of cycle performance for lithium-ion batteries; in addition, macroscopically, longer cycle life means less resource consumption. Therefore, the factors affecting the cycle performance of lithium-ion batteries are issues that every person involved in the lithium battery industry has to consider. Several factors that may affect battery cycling performance are listed below for your reference.

1. Material type: The choice of materials is the first factor affecting the performance of lithium-ion batteries. The material with poor cycle performance is selected, the process is reasonable, and the process is perfected. The cycle of the battery core is inevitably impossible to guarantee; the better material is selected, and even if there are some problems in subsequent fabrication, the cycle performance may not be bad. Too ridiculous (one lithium cobaltate gram is only 135.5mAh / g and lithium battery, 1C although more than 100 times diving but 0.5C, 500 times more than 90%; after the core is disassembled, the negative electrode has black graphite particles The battery has a good cycle performance). From the material point of view, the cycle performance of a full battery is determined by the poor performance of the cycle performance after the positive electrode is matched with the electrolyte and the cycle performance after the negative electrode and the electrolyte are matched. The cycle performance of the material is poor. On the one hand, the crystal structure changes too rapidly during the cycle, so that the lithium insertion can not be completed. On the one hand, the active substance and the corresponding electrolyte cannot form a dense and uniform SEI film to cause the active substance. A side reaction occurs prematurely with the electrolyte to cause the electrolyte to be consumed too quickly to affect the cycle. In the design of the battery core, if one pole confirms the selection of materials with poor cycle performance, the other pole does not need to select materials with better cycle performance and waste.

2, positive and negative compaction: positive and negative compaction is too high, although it can increase the energy density of the battery, but it will also reduce the cycle performance of the material to some extent. From the theory to analyze, the greater the compaction, the greater the structural damage to the material, and the structure of the material is the basis for ensuring that the lithium-ion battery can be recycled; in addition, the higher the positive and negative compaction of the battery is difficult to guarantee High liquid holding capacity, while the liquid holding capacity is the basis for the cell to complete a normal cycle or more cycles.

3. Moisture: Excessive moisture will cause side reactions with the positive and negative active materials, destroying its structure and affecting the cycle. At the same time, too much moisture is not conducive to the formation of SEI film. However, trace amounts of water can also ensure the performance of the cell to a certain extent while the trace amount of water is difficult to remove. Unfortunately, Wenwu’s personal experience in this aspect is almost zero, and there is not much to say. Everyone is interested in searching the forum for information on this topic, or a lot.

4. Coating film density: The effect of film density on the cycle is almost an impossible task. Inconsistent film densities either result in a difference in capacity or a difference in the number of cell windings or laminations. For batteries of the same type and capacity of the same material, reducing the film density is equivalent to increasing the number of layers or layers of winding or lamination, and the corresponding diaphragm can absorb more electrolyte to ensure circulation. Considering a thinner film density, it is possible to increase the rate performance of the cell, and it is easier to remove the water from the pole piece and the bare cell. Of course, too thin film density coating error may be more difficult to control, in the active material. Large particles can also have a negative impact on coating and rolling. More layers mean more foil and separator, which means higher cost and lower energy density. Therefore, equilibrium needs to be considered in the assessment.

5, the excess of the negative electrode: the reason for the excess of the negative electrode in addition to the need to consider the impact of the first irreversible capacity and coating film density deviation, the impact on the cycle performance is also a consideration. For the lithium cobaltate plus graphite system, the negative graphite is more common on the "short board" side of the cycle. If the anode is not excessive enough, the cell may not dephosphorize before the cycle, but after several hundred cycles, the structure of the positive electrode changes little but the structure of the negative electrode is severely damaged, and the lithium ion provided by the positive electrode cannot be completely received, thereby causing lithium. Early decline.

6. The amount of electrolyte: There are three main reasons for the lack of electrolyte solution. First, the amount of liquid injection is insufficient. Second, although the amount of liquid injection is sufficient, the aging time is insufficient or the positive and negative electrodes are soaked due to high compaction. The liquid is not sufficient, and the third is that the electrolyte inside the circulating cell is consumed. Insufficient liquid injection volume and insufficient liquid retention volume Wenwu previously wrote "The effect of electrolyte loss on the performance of the battery core" and therefore will not be described. For the third point, the microscopic representation of the matching of the positive and negative electrodes, especially the negative electrode and the electrolyte, is the formation of a dense and stable SEI, while the performance visible to the right eye is both the rate of consumption of the electrolyte during the cycle. On the one hand, the incomplete SEI film can not effectively prevent the negative electrode from reacting with the electrolyte to consume the electrolyte. On the one hand, the SEI film is regenerated in the defective portion of the SEI film to consume the reversible lithium source and electrolyte. . Whether it is a cell with hundreds or even thousands of cycles or a battery with dozens of dips, if the electrolyte is sufficient before the cycle and the electrolyte has been consumed after the cycle, it is possible to increase the amount of electrolyte. To the extent that it improves its cycle performance.

7. Objective conditions of the test: charge and discharge rate, cutoff voltage, charge cutoff current during the test, overcharge and overdischarge in the test, test room temperature, sudden interruption during the test, contact internal resistance of the test point and the cell Other factors will affect the cycle performance test results more or less. In addition, different materials are sensitive to the above objective factors. Uniform testing standards and understanding of the characteristics of commonality and important materials should be sufficient for daily work.

Summary: As with the wooden barrel principle, among the many factors affecting the cycle performance of the battery, the final decisive factor is the shortest of many factors. At the same time, there are interactions between these influencing factors. Under the same materials and manufacturing capabilities, the higher the cycle, the lower the energy density, the combination point that just meets the customer's needs, and the consistency of the battery core is the most important task. .

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